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美国疫情中如何保护自己不被传染?病毒能在表面存活多久?

  • 责任编辑:siyu.zhang
  • 来源:互联网
  • 时间:2020-05-22 11:29:33

  美国疫情的情况一直让全球人民都十分关注,你是否知道新型冠状病毒的情况呢?与新型冠状病毒感染者接触后就一定会被传染吗?

  导致COVID-19的病毒能在表面存活多久?

  专门研究新型冠状病毒的细胞生物学家Carolyn Machamer讨论了引起COVID-19的病毒的最新研究

  Samuel Volkin/3月20日出版

  根据《新英格兰医学杂志》(newenglandjournalofmedicine)最近发表的一项研究,引起COVID-19的病毒SARS-CoV-2可以在空气中和表面上存活数小时到数天。研究发现,这种病毒在塑料、不锈钢、纸板和铜上的存活时间分别为72小时、48小时和24小时。在空气中3小时也能检测到。

  卡罗琳·马查默(Carolyn Machamer)是约翰·霍普金斯医学院(Johns Hopkins School of Medicine)的细胞生物学教授,他所在的实验室多年来一直在研究冠状病毒的基础生物学,她与约翰·霍普金斯医学硕士/工商管理硕士(Johns Hopkins MPH/MBA)的候选人塞缪尔·沃尔金(Samuel Volkin)一起,简要讨论了这些发现,以及这些发现对于防止病毒传播的努力。为了篇幅和清晰度,这段对话已被编辑过。

  沃尔金:根据这份报告,听起来COVID-19病毒有可能在表面存活数天。我们应该有多担心仅仅接触几天前被新型冠状病毒感染者接触过的东西就有被感染的危险?

  马查默:现在有很多媒体报道,而且是断章取义的,病毒可以在塑料上持续72小时,这听起来真的很可怕。但更重要的是病毒的残留量。它小于0.1%开始的病毒物质。感染在理论上是可能的,但在几天后的水平上不太可能。人们需要知道这一点。

  你需要知道的

  美国疫情信息中心

  约翰霍普金斯社区的资源和更新,包括旅行指南、大学运营信息和预防疾病传播的提示

  虽然《新英格兰医学杂志》的研究发现,冠状病毒可以在空气中检测3小时,但在自然界,呼吸液滴下沉到地面的速度比本研究中产生的气溶胶要快。实验室使用的实验性气溶胶比咳嗽或打喷嚏产生的气溶胶要小,因此它们在空气中停留的时间比自然界中较重的颗粒要长。

  知道导致COVID-19的病毒存在于表面,我能保护自己的最好方法是什么?

  如果你靠近被感染的人而不是离开地面,你更容易通过空气感染。用消毒剂或肥皂清洁表面非常有效,因为一旦病毒的油性表面涂层失效,病毒就无法感染宿主细胞。然而,不能过分谨慎。以前从没发生过这样的事。

  疾病预防控制中心关于如何保护自己的指导方针包括:

  清洁和消毒许多人接触的表面。这些包括桌子、门把手、电灯开关、台面、把手、桌子、电话、键盘、卫生间、水龙头和水槽。避免在公共场合接触高接触面。

  从银行或杂货店等公共场所回家后,立即用肥皂和水洗手至少20秒。

  在公共场所,与他人保持6英尺的距离。

  最重要的是,如果你生病了,请呆在家里联系你的医生。

  有人猜测,一旦夏季来临,天气转暖,病毒将无法存活,但我们还不知道这是否属实。天气或室内温度是否影响表面COVID-19病毒的存活?

  知道导致COVID-19的病毒存在于表面,我能保护自己的最好方法是什么?

  如果你靠近被感染的人而不是离开地面,你更容易通过空气感染。用消毒剂或肥皂清洁表面非常有效,因为一旦病毒的油性表面涂层失效,病毒就无法感染宿主细胞。然而,不能过分谨慎。以前从没发生过这样的事。

  疾病预防控制中心关于如何保护自己的指导方针包括:

  清洁和消毒许多人接触的表面。这些包括桌子、门把手、电灯开关、台面、把手、桌子、电话、键盘、卫生间、水龙头和水槽。避免在公共场合接触高接触面。

  从银行或杂货店等公共场所回家后,立即用肥皂和水洗手至少20秒。

  在公共场所,与他人保持6英尺的距离。

  最重要的是,如果你生病了,请呆在家里联系你的医生。

  附上原文,以供参考,拒绝转载,侵权必删:

  HOW LONG CAN THE VIRUS THAT CAUSES COVID-19 LIVE ON SURFACES?

  Carolyn Machamer, a cell biologist who specializes in coronaviruses, discusses the latest research on the virus that causes COVID-19

  Samuel Volkin / Published March 20

  According to a recent study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can live in the air and on surfaces between several hours and several days. The study found that the virus is viable for up to 72 hours on plastics, 48 hours on stainless steel, 24 hours on cardboard, and 4 hours on copper. It is also detectable in the air for three hours.

  Carolyn Machamer, a professor of cell biology whose lab at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine has studied the basic biology of coronaviruses for years, joined Johns Hopkins MPH/MBA candidate Samuel Volkin for a brief discussion of these findings and what they mean for efforts to protect against spread of the virus. The conversation has been edited for length and clarity.

  Volkin: According to this report, it sounds like the COVID-19 virus is potentially living on surfaces for days. How worried should we be about our risk of becoming infected simply by touching something an infected person was in contact with days ago?

  Machamer: What's getting a lot of press and is presented out of context is that the virus can last on plastic for 72 hours—which sounds really scary. But what's more important is the amount of the virus that remains. It's less than 0.1% of the starting virus material. Infection is theoretically possible but unlikely at the levels remaining after a few days. People need to know this.

  WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

  COVID-19 information center

  Resources and updates for the Johns Hopkins community, including travel guidance, information on university operations, and tips for preventing the spread of illness

  While the New England Journal of Medicine study found that the COVID virus can be detected in the air for 3 hours, in nature, respiratory droplets sink to the ground faster than the aerosols produced in this study. The experimental aerosols used in labs are smaller than what comes out of a cough or sneeze, so they remain in the air at face-level longer than heavier particles would in nature.

  What is the best way I can protect myself, knowing that the virus that causes COVID-19 lives on surfaces?

  You are more likely to catch the infection through the air if you are next to someone infected than off of a surface. Cleaning surfaces with disinfectant or soap is very effective because once the oily surface coat of the virus is disabled, there is no way the virus can infect a host cell. However, there cannot be an overabundance of caution. Nothing like this has ever happened before.

  The CDC guidelines on how to protect yourself include:

  Clean and disinfect surfaces that many people come in contact with. These include tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, and sinks. Avoid touching high-contact surfaces in public.

  Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds immediately when you return home from a public place such as the bank or grocery store.

  When in a public space, put a distance of six feet between yourself and others.

  Most importantly, stay home if you are sick and contact your doctor.

  There has been speculation that once the summer season arrives and the weather warms up, the virus won't survive, but we don't yet know if that is true. Does the weather or indoor temperature affect the survival of the COVID-19 virus on surfaces?

  What is the best way I can protect myself, knowing that the virus that causes COVID-19 lives on surfaces?

  You are more likely to catch the infection through the air if you are next to someone infected than off of a surface. Cleaning surfaces with disinfectant or soap is very effective because once the oily surface coat of the virus is disabled, there is no way the virus can infect a host cell. However, there cannot be an overabundance of caution. Nothing like this has ever happened before.

  The CDC guidelines on how to protect yourself include:

  Clean and disinfect surfaces that many people come in contact with. These include tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, and sinks. Avoid touching high-contact surfaces in public.

  Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds immediately when you return home from a public place such as the bank or grocery store.

  When in a public space, put a distance of six feet between yourself and others.

  Most importantly, stay home if you are sick and contact your doctor.

  Source of articles:https://hub.jhu.edu/

  Author:Samuel Volkin

  在美国疫情中获取更多的常识信息对你抗击新型冠状病毒有利无害,希望大家能够远离新型冠状病毒感染者,保护好自己。


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