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约翰霍普金斯大学发表新冠疫情下美国监狱公共卫生安全建议

  • 责任编辑:siyu.zhang
  • 来源:互联网
  • 时间:2020-10-16 16:15:23

  新冠疫情不光是严重侵害到了普通人的利益,更是导致监狱出现了公共卫生问题,下面就和天道小编看看约翰霍普金斯大学发表的最新报告。

  监狱危机

  约翰霍普金斯大学发表的一份新报告为防止新冠疫情在刑事司法系统的传播提供了建议

  珍妮特·德贝鲁西安/出版于15小时前

  3月下旬,芝加哥库克县监狱的两名囚犯在COVID-19检测呈阳性后被隔离。两周内,350多名囚犯和工作人员感染了病毒。到4月底,《纽约时报》(New York Times)已将该监狱列为“头号热点”,并指出令人担忧的统计数据可能没有反映出问题的全部程度,因为该监狱的4500名囚犯中绝大多数没有接受过测试。

  但疫情的影响远远超出了carceral监狱的大门——4月19日发表的一项研究估计,芝加哥所有案件中约有16%与在库克县监狱骑车的人有关。

  布隆伯格公共卫生学院公共卫生与人权中心主任Chris Beyrer解释说:“有一种非常普遍的观念——一种误解——认为监狱和监狱在某种程度上与社区是分开的。”“但事实是,这些地方有大量的员工。通常一天至少有三次八小时的轮班,人们不停地进出这些设施。”

  “这些设施缺乏准备,缺乏公共卫生系统,这确实令人担忧。我希望我们不仅能在COVID-19大流行期间解决这个问题,我们还能做出一些系统性的改变,使这些设施更安全,在监禁犯人时更明智。”

  水晶沃森

  健康SecurityCOVID-19中心和美国刑事司法系统:依据公共卫生措施,以减少风险,布隆伯格周四发表的一份报告中心学校的卫生安全和公共卫生中心和人权,拉到视图的复杂网络风险因素在监狱,监狱和其他惩教设施,使其潜在的COVID-19超级传播者。这份报告是为国家COVID-19和刑事司法委员会准备的,它敦促美国刑事司法系统采取紧急和迅速的行动,减少拥挤,增加检测,并防止传染病的传播。

  该报告的合著者、卫生安全中心的高级学者Crystal Watson说:“这些设施中存在的准备不足——即缺乏公共卫生系统——确实令人担忧。”“我希望我们不仅能在COVID-19大流行期间解决这个问题,而且我们还能做出一些系统性的改变,使这些设施更加安全,在监禁犯人时更加明智。”

  这份报告列举了一系列相互交织的因素,这些因素解释了为什么美国有那么多COVID-19病例集中在惩教机构。首先,carceral的设施往往过于拥挤,使身体距离和医疗隔离变得困难。然后,工作人员进出设施也会带来潜在的感染。个人防护装备,如口罩,和卫生用品,如肥皂或洗手液的获取不一致。“事实上,”报告的合著者拜尔说,“洗手液在许多监狱和监狱是违禁品,因为它含有酒精。”整个司法系统都没有与冠状病毒相关的医疗保健、检测或报告标准。

  报告指出,监狱人口老龄化和高共病率加剧了严重感染或死亡的风险。

  截至6月6日,监狱中COVID-19的发病率是美国总人口的5.5倍。据《纽约时报》报道,到目前为止,美国监狱和监狱中已经有超过233,000人感染了病毒,至少1,372名囚犯和惩教官员死亡。

  沃森说:“人们在3月和4月就拉响了警报,说这将是一个问题,显然这已经成为事实。”“虽然已经采取了一些措施,但总体来说,反应仍然不佳。”

  拜尔对此表示赞同,他说:“我们基本上输掉了整个早期的地面比赛,而这本来可以挽救很多生命,防止很多感染。”

  报告为监狱、监狱和拘留所提出了降低感染率的8项主要建议:

  减少人口密度。不得因未缴费、保释金不足或违反假释/缓刑规定而拘留他人。对于老年人和那些有慢性疾病的人,可以考虑提早出院。

  在作出有关保释、量刑和释放的决定时要考虑健康。

  公开冠状病毒检测数据和预防策略。

  开展广泛、持续的冠状病毒检测,包括抗体检测,以对迄今的感染率有一个基本了解。

  实施检疫和医疗隔离战略,确保它们不等同于被视为对身心健康有害的单独监禁。

  修改设备操作和程序以防止感染。促进身体距离,改进清洁措施,提供肥皂和洗手液,尽可能到户外活动,并提供外科口罩。

  规范整个司法系统的卫生保健服务,确保获得COVID-19护理。

  当疫苗可用时,优先考虑被监禁的个人和工作人员在同一级别的疗养院。

  报告还提出了在法院预防感染的建议,包括尽可能将审判和听证会转移到虚拟环境中,促进身体距离,以及为工作人员、被告和陪审团提供口罩。

  拜尔说,对于所有的破坏,这种流行病提供了一个独特的机会来重新想象美国的刑事司法系统,美国自诩拥有世界上最高的监禁率。

  他说:“COVID-19是一场重大危机,它让我们在许多事情上得到了很多教训。”例如,它揭示了儿童教育中的数字鸿沟。它强调了这样一个事实:许多白领都可以像我一样在家远程办公,而那些有工作的穷人却没有这样的选择。我认为这些监狱爆发的事件在某些方面是相似的。这应该真正提高我们的整体意识,为什么一个把自己的身份建立在热爱自由的基础上的国家应该成为世界上伟大的监禁者。这是一个真正的重新调整的机会。”

  在政治+社会发布

  标记公共卫生、流行病学、传染病、刑事司法、社会正义、种族正义、冠状病毒、监狱改革

  附上原文,以供参考,拒绝转载,侵权必删:

  A CARCERAL CRISIS

  A new report published by Johns Hopkins provides recommendations for preventing the spread of COVID-19 in the criminal justice system

  Jeanette Der Bedrosian / Published 15 hours ago

  In late March, two inmates at Chicago's Cook County jail were placed in isolation after testing positive for COVID-19. Within two weeks, more than 350 inmates and staff members had contracted the virus. By late April, The New York Times had named the facility a "top hot spot," noting that the grim statistics likely didn't reflect the full extent of the problem, since a vast majority of the jail's 4,500 inmates had not been tested.

  But the implications of the outbreak went far beyond the carceral facility's gates—one study published April 19 estimates that about 16% of all cases in Chicago were associated with people cycling through Cook County jail.

  "There is a belief that is quite common—a misconception—that prisons and jails are somehow separated from communities," explains Chris Beyrer, director of the Center for Public Health and Human Rights within the Bloomberg School of Public Health. "But the fact of the matter is that these places have large staffs. There are usually at least three eight-hour shifts a day, and people are constantly moving in and out of these facilities."

  "THE LACK OF PREPARATION—THE LACK OF A PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM—THAT EXISTS IN THESE FACILITIES IS REALLY CONCERNING. I HOPE THAT NOT ONLY CAN WE ADDRESS THIS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC, BUT WE CAN MAKE SOME SYSTEMIC CHANGES GOING FORWARD TO MAKE THESE FACILITIES SAFER AND TO BE MORE JUDICIOUS WHEN WE'RE INCARCERATING PEOPLE."

  Crystal Watson

  Center for Health SecurityCOVID-19 and the U.S. Criminal Justice System: Evidence for Public Health Measures to Reduce Risk, a report published Thursday by the Bloomberg School's Center for Health Security and the Center for Public Health and Human Rights, pulls into view the complicated web of risk factors at play within prisons, jails, and other correctional facilities that make them potential superspreaders of COVID-19. Prepared for the National Commission on COVID-19 and Criminal Justice, the report urges the U.S. criminal justice system to take urgent and swift action to reduce crowding, increase testing, and prevent the spread of infectious disease.

  "The lack of preparation—the lack of a public health system—that exists in these facilities is really concerning," says Crystal Watson, co-author of the report and senior scholar within the Center for Health Security. "I hope that not only can we address this during the COVID-19 pandemic, but we can make some systemic changes going forward to make these facilities safer and to be more judicious when we're incarcerating people."

  The report lists a slew of interwoven factors that explain why so many of the largest clusters of COVID-19 cases in the U.S. have been in correctional facilities. First, carceral facilities are often overcrowded, making physical distancing and medical isolation difficult. Then, there's the movement of staff in and out of facilities, carrying with them potential infection. There's inconsistent access to personal protective equipment, such as face masks, and hygiene supplies, such as soap or hand sanitizer. "Actually," notes Beyrer, a co-author of the report, "hand sanitizer is contraband in many prisons and jails because it contains alcohol." And there's no standard across the justice system for health care, testing, or reporting related to coronavirus.

  The risk of severe infection or death is compounded by an aging prison population with a high rate of comorbidities, according to the report.

  As of June 6, the case rate of COVID-19 in prisons was 5.5 times higher than it is among the overall U.S. population. More than 233,000 people in American prisons and jails have been infected to date, and at least 1,372 inmates and correctional officers have died, according to The New York Times.

  "People were sounding the alarm back in March and April that this would be a problem, and obviously that has come to fruition," Watson says. "Some steps have been taken, but overall the response is still really subpar."

  Beyrer agrees, saying, "We basically lost the entire early ground game that could have saved a lot of lives and prevented a lot of infections."

  The report outlines eight key recommendations for jails, prisons, and detention centers to reduce infection rates:

  Reduce population density. Do not detain people for unpaid fees, insufficient bail funds, or parole/probation violations. Consider early release for older individuals and those with chronic conditions.

  Consider health when making decisions related to bail, sentencing, and release.

  Make coronavirus testing data and prevention strategies public.

  Conduct widespread, ongoing coronavirus testing, including antibody tests to get a baseline understanding of the infection rate to date.

  Implement quarantine and medical isolation strategies, making sure they are not equivalent to solitary confinement, which is seen as harmful to physical and mental health.

  Modify facility practices and procedures to prevent infection. Promote physical distancing, improve cleaning practices, make available soap and hand sanitizer, move activities outdoors when possible, and provide surgical masks.

  Standardize health care services across the justice system to ensure access to COVID-19 care.

  When a vaccine becomes available, prioritize incarcerated individuals and staff at the same level as nursing homes.

  The report also lays out recommendations for preventing infection in courthouses, including moving trials and hearings to a virtual setting when possible, promoting physical distancing, and providing masks for staff, defendants, and juries.

  For all of its destruction, Beyrer says, the pandemic has provided a unique opportunity to reimagine the criminal justice system in the U.S., which boasts the highest incarceration rate in the world.

  "COVID-19 is one of the great crises that has taught us a lot about so many things," he says. "It has revealed, for example, the digital divide in children's education. It has underscored the fact that so many white-collar people can telecommute and work from home, as I have been doing, and that the working poor don't have that option. And I think these prison outbreaks have been similar in some ways. This should really raise our consciousness overall of why a country that bases its identity on loving freedom should be the world's great incarcerator. This is a real opportunity for recalibration."

  Posted in Politics+Society

  Tagged public health, epidemiology, infectious disease, criminal justice, social justice, racial justice, coronavirus, prison reform

  Source of articles:https://hub.jhu.edu/

  Author:Jeanette Der Bedrosian

  以上就是新冠疫情下监狱公共卫生安全的情况介绍了,希望对各位学子了解约翰霍普金斯大学最新动态有所帮助。


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