家长专区

海外疫情
美国
日本
英国
加拿大
欧洲
澳洲
新加坡
国际学校
北京
上海
广州
深圳
成都
武汉
西安
苏州
其他
留学置业
美国
英国
加拿大
澳洲

世界卫生组织致力于平均分配新冠疫苗

  • 责任编辑:siyu.zhang
  • 来源:互联网
  • 时间:2021-02-23 09:32:25

  新冠疫苗是抗击新冠疫情的最大武器,那么新冠疫苗制造商的疫苗制造情况如何?一起和天道小编看看新冠病毒医疗产品的介绍吧。

  新的承诺提高了COVAX,但批评人士说,还需要更多来确保全球新冠疫苗获得

  经过数月的不确定和挫折,上周晚些时候,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)一项旨在确保数十个低收入国家获得Covid-19疫苗的项目收到了一系列好消息。

  首先,新冠疫苗制造商诺瓦瓦克斯(NVAX)承诺为世卫组织的努力提供11亿剂疫苗,也就是众所周知的COVAX。与此同时,美国同意在未来两年提供40亿美元的援助,德国提供12亿美元,欧盟委员会提供6亿美元。目前,七国集团(G7)总共承诺注资75亿美元。英国承诺向低收入国家提供剩余的疫苗。

  这些突然宣布的消息,与人们日益担心COVAX步履蹒跚形成了鲜明对比。在过去一年的大部分时间里,富裕国家和制药商达成了协议,批评者认为这会让低收入国家几乎无法获得疫苗。因此,迄今为止,绝大多数疫苗接种是在高收入国家进行的。

  不过,现在,世卫组织官员对在今年年底前成功向92个低收入经济体中至少20%的人口提供约20亿剂疫苗持乐观态度。他们的观点是,穷国越早接种疫苗,疫情就能越早被制止。

  世卫组织总干事谭德塞在一份声明中说:“支持疫苗公平的运动越来越多。”“这不能像往常一样,各国迫切需要分享剂量和技术,扩大生产,并确保有可持续的疫苗供应,以便世界各地的每个人都能得到疫苗。”

  但是,尽管有明显的进展迹象,关于COVAX的努力能在多大程度上取得成功的问题仍然存在。目前,供应是有限的。COVAX预计阿斯利康和辉瑞将分别提供3.36亿剂和120万剂疫苗,仅覆盖参与该项目145个国家人口的3.3%。

  “这取决于你认为目标是什么,”伦敦经济学院(London School of Economics)研究药物定价和获取问题的国际发展教授肯尼斯·沙德伦(Kenneth Shadlen)说。“我们是否在试图避免贫穷国家无法获得疫苗的情况?或者我们是否在努力实现更公平的疫苗分配就接种疫苗的人口比例和比例而言?显然,这些都是极端的,但这样思考是有用的。”

  在他看来,最新的公告表明,COVAX确实可以帮助低收入国家获得疫苗。但Shadlen对较贫穷的经济体能否获得与较富裕国家类似的分配比例不太有信心。

  他继续说:“如果COVAX能够帮助我们避免贫穷国家在2022年或更晚之前没有疫苗的最坏情况,那就太好了。”我们可以庆祝这一成就,但我们也应该承认这一成就,避免出现最坏的情况。”

  COVAX是去年在全球疫苗和免疫联盟、疫苗联盟和流行病防范创新联盟的帮助下成立的。像较富裕的国家一样,COVAX已经与疫苗制造商达成协议,购买大量疫苗。事实上,据杜克全球健康创新中心(Duke Global Health Innovation Center)称,在美国和欧盟之后,COVAX已经同意购买最多的剂量。

  不过,直到上周,COVAX是否有资金兑现承诺仍不清楚。该计划的资金主要来自富裕国家和各种组织,如比尔和梅林达·盖茨基金会。中上收入国家也可以参加COVAX,但必须自己支付疫苗费用。

  与此同时,尽管有几家公司已经与COVAX达成了交易,但关于制药行业的承诺一直存在争议。

  从长远来看,辉瑞公司(PFE)及其合作伙伴生物科技公司(BNTX)同意提供多达4000万剂他们的疫苗。强生公司(JNJ)今年将提供1亿剂,到2022年将提供多达5亿剂。与牛津大学合作开发Covid-19疫苗的阿斯利康(AstraZeneca)同意与印度血清研究所分享其技术,以便加速向低收入国家分发疫苗。而Moderna (MRNA)不会对其疫苗实施专利权。

  在一份声明中,国际制药制造商和协会联合会坚持认为,它的共同目标是让卫生工作者公平获得疫苗。该贸易集团说:“自这次大流行开始以来,工业界不遗余力地开发、登记和分发有效和高质量的疫苗。”

  尽管如此,倡导团体仍不信服。这些组织指出,尽管强生公司目前已向世界卫生组织申请紧急使用的批准,但一些疫苗,如诺瓦瓦克斯疫苗,尚未获得批准或仍在进行临床试验。与此同时,乐施会指出,富裕国家已经为每位公民提供了超过三倍的疫苗,而许多低收入国家还没有接种过一剂疫苗。

  “在资金方面,缺口正在开始填补,但关键问题是透明度,”无国界医生组织(Doctors Without Borders)开展的准入运动的医疗创新和政策顾问曼努埃尔·马丁(Manuel Martin)说。“制造商正在提供剂量,但以什么条款提供,我们不知道,但协议正在推进,没有足够的信息来施加压力。”

  他继续说,一个关键问题是需要支持技术转让,即向其他公司提供知识,以便加快疫苗的生产。与此同时,有人呼吁暂时放弃世界贸易组织(wto)协议中的条款,希望让新冠病毒医疗产品更容易获得,尤其是低收入经济体。

  “这里的关键障碍是技术,”马丁说,“你需要企业转移技术,以便在短期内扩大产能。”

  关于作者

  埃德·西尔弗曼

  医药专栏作家,资深作家

  Ed涵盖了制药行业。

  ed.silverman@statnews.com

  @Pharmalot

  附上原文,以供参考,拒绝转载,侵权必删:

  New pledges boost COVAX, but critics say more is needed to ensure global vaccine access

  By Ed Silverman Feb. 22, 2021After months of uncertainty and frustration, a World Health Organization program designed to ensure access to Covid-19 vaccines in dozens of low-income countries late last week received a spate of good news.

  First, one vaccine maker, Novavax (NVAX), pledged 1.1 billion doses of its shot to the WHO effort, which is known as COVAX. Meanwhile, the U.S. agreed to contribute $4 billion in aid over the next two years, with Germany adding $1.2 billion and the European Commission providing $600 million. Collectively, the G7 countries have now committed a total $7.5 billion. And the U.K. promised to provide surplus vaccines to low-income countries.

  The sudden rush of announcements was in stark contrast to increasing concerns that COVAX was faltering. For much of the past year, wealthy nations and drug makers reached deals that critics argued would leave low-income nations with little access to vaccines. As a result, the vast majority of vaccinations have so far occurred in high-income countries.

  Now, though, WHO officials are more optimistic about successfully getting approximately 2 billion vaccine doses to at least 20% of the populations of 92 lower-income economies by the end of this year. Their argument has been that the sooner poor nations are vaccinated, the sooner the pandemic can be halted.

  “There is a growing movement behind vaccine equity,” said WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, in a statement. “This can’t be business as usual and there is an urgent need for countries to share doses and technology, scale up manufacturing and ensure that there is a sustainable supply of vaccines so that everyone, everywhere, can receive a vaccine.”

  But despite the obvious signs of progress, questions remain about the extent to which the effort, known as COVAX, can succeed. For the moment, supply is constrained. COVAX expects 336 million doses from AstraZeneca and 1.2 million doses from Pfizer to cover just 3.3% of the population of the 145 countries participating in the program.

  “It depends on what you regard as the goal,” said Kenneth Shadlen, a professor of international development at the London School of Economics, who studies pharmaceutical pricing and access issues. “Are we trying to avoid a situation where poor countries have no access to vaccines? Or are we trying to achieve something closer to equitable distribution of vaccines in terms of what share of populations get vaccinated at what rate? Obviously, those are extremes, but it’s useful to think about it that way.”

  In his view, the latest announcements suggest that COVAX can, indeed, help lower-income countries gain access to vaccines. But Shadlen is less confident that poorer economies will get a proportionate share that resembles the sort of distribution occurring in wealthier nations.

  “It would be great if COVAX can help us avoid a worst-case scenario of poor countries having no vaccines until 2022 or later,” he continued. “That’s an accomplishment that we can celebrate, but we should also recognize the accomplishment for what it is – avoiding a worst-case scenario.”

  COVAX was established last year with the help of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations. And like wealthier nations, COVAX has struck deals with vaccine makers to purchase large numbers of doses. In fact, after the U.S. and the European Union, COVAX has agreed to buy the largest number of doses, according to the Duke Global Health Innovation Center.

  Until last week, though, it remained unclear whether COVAX would have the money to follow through on its commitments. The funding for the program largely comes from wealthy countries and various organizations, such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Upper and upper-middle-income countries can also participate in COVAX, but will have to pay for vaccines themselves.

  At the same time, there has been debate about the commitment of the pharmaceutical industry, although several companies have reached deals with COVAX.

  Over the long term, Pfizer (PFE) and its partner, BioNTech (BNTX), agreed to supply up to 40 million doses of their vaccine. Johnson & Johnson (JNJ) will provide 100 million doses this year and up to 500 million doses through 2022. AstraZeneca (AZN), which developed a Covid-19 vaccine with the University of Oxford, agreed to share its technology with the Serum Institute of India in order to accelerate distribution to low-income countries. And Moderna (MRNA) will not enforce patent rights to its vaccine.

  In a statement, International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations maintained that it shares the goal of achieving equitable access to vaccines to health workers. “Since the beginning of this pandemic, industry has spared no efforts to develop, register and distribute effective and high-quality vaccines,” the trade group stated.

  Nonetheless, advocacy groups remain unconvinced.The groups noted that some vaccines, such as the Novavax shot, have yet to be authorized or are still being tested in clinical trials, although J&J has now sought WHO approval for emergency use. Meanwhile, Oxfam noted that wealthy nations have secured enough vaccines for each of their citizens to be vaccinated three times over, while many low-income countries have yet to receive a single dose.

  “In terms of financing, the gaps are starting to be plugged, but the key issue is transparency,” said Manuel Martin, a medical innovation and policy advisor for the access campaign run by Doctors Without Borders. “The manufacturers are offering doses but under what terms, we have no idea, yet the agreements are moving forward and there is not enough information to exert pressure.”

  A key issue, he continued, is a need to support technology transfer, which refers to providing knowledge to other companies so that vaccine manufacturing can be accelerated. This argument has gone hand-in-hand with calls to temporarily waive provisions in a World Trade Organization agreement in hopes of making Covid-19 medical products more easily accessible, especially by low-income economies.

  “The key barrier here is know-how,” said Martin, “and you need the companies to transfer that to scale up production capacity in the short term.”

  About the Author

  Ed Silverman

  Pharmalot Columnist, Senior Writer

  Ed covers the pharmaceutical industry.

  ed.silverman@statnews.com

  @Pharmalot

  Source of articles:https://www.statnews.com/

  Author:Ed Silverman

  以上就是新冠疫苗的最新制造情况介绍了,希望对各位学子了解新冠疫苗制造商、新冠病毒医疗产品有所帮助。


  • 国际名校 金牌文凭 不出国门 国内就读

  • 2021USNews美国大学排名官方数据

  • 快速测出真实留学语言水平,定制提分方案!

  • 天道海外置业:留学、移民等多重海外生活定

    < >
    • 留学评估
    • 语言评测

    免费留学评估
    我 是学生家长
    • 姓 名
    • 所在城市
    • 手 机
    • 意向国家
    • 邮 箱
    • 教育阶段
    • Q  Q
    • 留学目标
    • 微信号
    • 意向专业
    立即获得免费留学规划

    在线帮助

    关于我们

    专家分享

    客户案例

    合作与互动