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通过更好地通风和空气质量 避免美国新冠病毒传播

  • 责任编辑:siyu.zhang
  • 来源:互联网
  • 时间:2021-07-21 14:27:16

  新冠病毒并未消失,新冠疫情仍然存在,那么如何更好地预防新冠病毒传播?

  通过更好的通风和空气质量,避免新冠病毒

  莱斯利·博登、威尔·拉德曼和帕特里夏·费边于2021年7月20日撰文

  在新冠疫情期间,户外聚会为人们提供了比室内会面更安全的选择。但是对于那些整天呆在拥挤室内的人——办公大楼里的工人、学校里的学生等等——怎样才能使他们的室内环境和室外环境更相似呢?改善空气质素及通风。

  然而,在改善室内通风方面,联邦法规是不够的,而且很少有州采取行动来改善它。我们检查了Covid-19美国国家政策数据库,发现只有密歇根州、明尼苏达州、新泽西州、俄勒冈州和华盛顿州有明确的职业安全和健康标准,以促进更好的空气和/或通风质量。

  这个问题远远超出了预防新冠病毒传播的范围。对室内空气质量的最低要求还有助于减少每年导致数万人死亡的流感的传播,并有助于改善哮喘等慢性呼吸道疾病。

  工作场所的空气质量和通风标准早就应该更新了。随着国家在大流行后形成新常态,改善职业安全和健康应成为优先事项,特别是在通风不良的室内空间。机械通风系统可以将室外空气带入建筑物或重新循环空气,从而增加房间空气更换的频率,或通过高效过滤器净化空气。如果室外空气是干净的,增加通风会减少室内空气中的污染物,包括各种大小的颗粒。考虑到病毒和细菌等传染因子是微小的颗粒,可以长时间悬浮在空气中,增加通风,加上捕获病原体和其他颗粒的过滤系统,有可能减少传染性疾病的空气传播。

  Covid-19传播率高的工作场所最需要改善通风,以支持工人的健康。长期护理机构经历了明显的严重爆发。来自加州和华盛顿的数据表明,餐馆厨房和食品生产设施的工人中Covid-19病例的比例特别高——超过9万名肉类加工厂和食品加工厂的工人被检测出Covid-19阳性。这些行业的工资相对较低,工作场所的质量往往较差,而且有色人种工人的数量多得不成比例。尽管改善室内空气质量很重要,但政策制定者并没有就制定更多保护标准的迫切需要采取行动。

  各国在重新开学时为解决职业健康和安全问题所作的初步努力是不够的。指导方针促进回到面对面学校主要集中在物理障碍和物理距离。这些努力忽视了空气流动作为防止气溶胶疾病在教师和学生之间传播的一种手段的重要性。如果这种情况得不到纠正,许多人就会在室内工作场所不必要地感染病毒。然而,大多数州并没有强制要求建筑物配备更好的通风设备,比如高效空气微粒过滤器。

  随着各国逐步取消剩余的Covid-19限制措施,改善室内空气质量尤其重要。如果没有要求佩戴口罩和保持社交距离的规定,更清洁的室内空气有助于减少传染性疾病的传播并保持人们的健康。这是可以做到的:职业安全与健康管理局(OSHA)已经强制要求卫生保健设置更强的通风指南。这也必须扩展到其他工作环境。

  随着美国从大流行的影响中恢复过来,对工作场所实施更严格的室内空气质量法规,即使是以消耗更多能源为代价,也符合公共卫生和企业的最佳利益。当人们呼吸顺畅时,他们的表现也会更好。良好的通风与改善认知功能、提高工作效率和减少缺勤有关。

  即使没有OSHA制定的足够的应急标准来减少工人接触SARS-CoV-2(导致Covid-19的病毒),各州也可以通过采纳美国供暖协会建议的法规,制冷和空调工程师在所有工作场所要求更高的空气交换率和高质量的空气过滤。目前有五个州有特定的职业空气质量和通风标准。纽约和俄勒冈州最近实施了工作场所传染病标准。其他州也应该这样做。

  美国错过了许多制定政策以保护基本工作人员免受Covid-19和其他呼吸道疾病感染的机会。向前发展,这些可预防的疾病和死亡是可以停止的。我们选出的官员可以投资工作场所的基础设施,特别是为低收入工人和有色人种工人,提供改善健康和福祉的通风设备。

  莱斯利·博登(Leslie Boden)是波士顿大学公共卫生学院的经济学家和教授。威尔·拉德曼,波士顿大学公共卫生学院研究员,致力于Covid-19美国国家政策数据库的研究。帕特丽夏·费边是波士顿大学公共卫生学院的一名环境工程师和副教授。

  关于作者

  莱斯利·博登

  lboden@bu.edu

  将Raderman

  radwill@bu.edu

  @RadWill_

  帕特里夏·费边

  pfabian@bu.edu

  附上原文,以供参考,拒绝转载,侵权必删:

  Circumventing Covid-19 with better ventilation and air quality

  By Leslie Boden, Will Raderman, and Patricia Fabian July 20, 2021

  Gathering outdoors has provided people a safer alternative to meeting inside during the Covid-19 pandemic. But for those who spend their days in crowded indoor spaces — workers in office buildings and industrial facilities, students in schools, and the like — how can their indoor environments be made more similar to the outdoors? With better air quality and ventilation.

  Yet federal regulations are insufficient for improving indoor ventilation and few states are moving to improve it. We examined the Covid-19 US State Policy database and found that only Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, Oregon, and Washington have explicit occupational safety and health standards to promote better air and/or ventilation quality.

  The issue goes far beyond preventing Covid-19 transmission. Minimum requirements for indoor air quality could also help reduce the yearly spread of influenza, which causes tens of thousands of deaths each year, and help improve chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma.

  Workplace air quality and ventilation standards are long overdue for an update. As the country shapes a new normal in the wake of the pandemic, improving occupational safety and health should be a priority, especially in poorly ventilated indoor spaces.Mechanical ventilation systems can bring outside air into buildings or recirculate air, increasing the frequency at which the air in a room gets replaced or cleaning the air by passing it through efficient filters. If the outside air is clean, increased ventilation decreases indoor airborne pollutants, including particles of all sizes. Given that infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria are tiny particles and can remain suspended in the air for long times, increased ventilation coupled with filtration systems that trap pathogens and other particles has the potential to reduce airborne transmission of infectious diseases.

  Workplaces with high rates of Covid-19 transmission face the greatest need to improve ventilation to support workers’ health. Long-term care facilities have experienced notably bad outbreaks. Data from California and Washington indicate especially high rates of Covid-19 cases among workers in restaurant kitchens and food manufacturing facilities — more than 90,000 workers at meatpacking and food processing plants have tested positive for Covid-19. These industries are relatively low-wage, often with poor workplace quality, and have a disproportionately high number of workers of color. Despite the importance of improving indoor air quality, policymakers are not acting on the urgent need for more protective standards.

  States’ initial attempts to address occupational health and safety concerns when reopening schools were inadequate. Guidelines facilitating a return to in-person schooling largely focused on physical barriers and physical distancing. These efforts overlooked the importance of air flow as a means of preventing aerosol disease transmission among teachers and students. If this is not corrected going forward, many people will be unnecessarily infected in indoor workspaces. Yet most states have not mandated that buildings be equipped with better ventilation devices, such as high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters.

  Improving indoor air quality is especially important as states roll back remaining Covid-19 restrictions. Without face mask mandates and social distancing requirements in place, cleaner indoor air can help reduce infectious disease transmission and keep people healthy. This can be accomplished: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has already mandated stronger ventilation guidelines for health care settings. This must be expanded to other work settings as well.

  It is in the best interests of both public health and business to implement stronger indoor air quality regulations for workplaces as the U.S. recovers from the effects of the pandemic, even at the cost of higher energy use. When people can breathe better, they perform better. Good ventilation is associated with improved cognitive function, increased productivity, and fewer missed days of work.

  Even without a sufficient emergency standard from OSHA to reduce workers’ exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19, states can pass regulations that adopt recommendations from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers to mandate higher air exchange rates and high-quality air filtration in all workplaces. Five states currently have specific occupational air quality and ventilation standards. New York and Oregon recently implemented infectious disease standards for workplaces. Other states should do the same.

  The U.S. has missed many opportunities to develop policies to protect essential workers from Covid-19 and other respiratory illnesses. Moving forward, these preventable illnesses and deaths can be stopped. Our elected officials can invest in workplace infrastructure, especially for low-income workers and workers of color, to deliver ventilation that improves health and well-being.

  Leslie Boden is an economist and professor at the Boston University School of Public Health. Will Raderman is a research fellow at the Boston University School of Public Health and works on the Covid-19 US State Policy database. Patricia Fabian is an environmental engineer and associate professor at the Boston University School of Public Health.

  About the Authors

  Leslie Boden

  lboden@bu.edu

  Will Raderman

  radwill@bu.edu

  @RadWill_

  Patricia Fabian

  pfabian@bu.edu

  Source of articles:https://www.statnews.com/

  Author:

  Leslie Boden

  Will Raderman

  Patricia Fabian


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